Kazakhstan is a significant producer of coal, crude oil and natural gas, and a major energy exporter. While coal dominates the country’s energy mix, renewable sources of energy are a small but growing share of Kazakhstan’s electricity generation. Gas pipeline network expansion remains a priority, in order to expand access and reduce reliance on coal and LPG for household consumption. Kazakhstan is part of the EU4Energy Progamme, an initiative focused on evidence-based policymaking for the energy sector.


Key energy statistics

Key recommendations, 2022

  • Use energy prices to incentivize energy efficiency and the diversification of energy supplies

    Ensure that all energy prices take into account long-run marginal costs and environmental externalities, to provide sufficient incentives to pursue energy efficiency, and to level the playing field for and stimulate the development of new sources of supply. Any price rises should be accompanied by policies to mitigate their impact on the most vulnerable segments of the population.

  • Foster energy statistics use

    Maintain close co-operation with the Bureau of National Statistics and continue using official energy statistics as the foundation for analysis in strategic documents and when drafting new legislation.

  • Diversify oil export routes

    Prioritise the diversification of oil export routes.

  • Foster renewable energy sources and flexible capacity

    Continue and expand auctions to build renewable energy sources (RES) and flexible capacity.

  • Enhance system integration of renewables

    Develop a (real-time) balancing market to efficiently mobilise all available resources for system balancing (or balancing demand and supply), which will be increasingly beneficial as variable renewables grow.

  • Foster the implementation of the country’s NDC

    Adopt the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) implementation roadmap for Kazakhstan.

  • Reduce emissions from sectors not covered by ETS

    Adopt policy measures to reduce emissions from sectors not covered by the emission trading system (ETS), including transport, the residential sector and services.

  • Intensify efforts to reduce emissions from coal-fired plants

    Reduce emissions by adopting more stringent air pollution standards for such plants, including through best available techniques (BAT), and ensuring enforcement. Ensure that Kazakhstan’s BAT and technical emissions standards are in line with international best practice.

Kazakhstan data explorer