Plan for compact urban development with improved public transport and infrastructure for micromobility and active travel
More than half of the world’s population lives in cities. With urbanisation on the rise, urban governance should encompass transport strategies that can induce modal shift towards low-emission transport in order to get in step with the NZE Scenario.
The resurgence in active modes of transport during and following the pandemic has provided governments with a policy window to improve and expand infrastructure (e.g. bicycle lanes and car-free zones) and make road re-allocation measures permanent.
Transit-oriented development that integrates high-density living with urban rail should be promoted to achieve high passenger throughput on urban rail networks. Bus networks, as well as walking, cycling and other last-mile solutions, should be integrated into development.
Cities can also employ measures to stem the uptake of larger, less fuel-efficient vehicles, including allocating a greater share of parking spaces to smaller cars, and/or basing parking fees on vehicle size. Finally, fiscal and regulatory policies that support M0 category electric vehicles (“city cars”) designed explicitly for use in cities could help to alleviate resource constraints and congestion while reducing emissions of local and climate pollutants.