Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions: From Today's Challenges to Tomorrow's Clean Energy Systems

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Cooling energy use in buildings has doubled since 2000, making it the fastest growing end-use in buildings, led by a combination of warmer temperatures and increased activity.

Cooling Jpg

Key findings

Global air conditioner stock, 1990-2050


The world faces a 'cold crunch'

Without efficiency gains, space cooling energy use could more than double between now and 2040 due to increased activity and use of air conditioning. In the Efficient World Scenario, energy efficiency for cooling offsets much of the climate, activity and structure impacts to limit cooling energy growth between now and 2040 to 19%.

Average efficiency of new air conditioners 2000-2020 and in the Net Zero Scenario


Most people purchase new air conditioners that are two to three times less efficient than the best available model

Energy consumption for space cooling has more than tripled since 1990, with significant implications for electricity grids, especially during peak demand periods and extreme heat events. Global space cooling demand continued to grow in 2020, driven in part by greater home cooling as more people spent more time at home. Space cooling accounted for nearly 16% of buildings sector final electricity consumption in 2020 (about 1 885 TWh). While highly efficient air conditioner (AC) units are available on the market, most consumers purchase models that are two to three times less efficient. Implementing energy efficiency standards could improve AC energy performance by around 50% by 2030 and help put cooling on track with the Net Zero Emissions by 2050 Scenario. Together with improved building design, efficiency standards are a key measure to avoid the lock-in of inefficient units in coming decades.
Our work

The Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program (K-CEP) is a philanthropic collaboration launched in 2017 to support the Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol and the transition to efficient, clean cooling solutions for all.

This site serves as a progress tracker for the Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol.

The DHC TCP conducts research and development as well as policy analysis and international co-operation to increase the market penetration of district heating and cooling systems with low environmental impact.

The mission of the Energy Storage TCP is to facilitate research, development, implementation and integration of energy storage technologies to optimise the energy efficiency of all kinds of energy systems and enable the increasing use of renewable energy. Storage technologies are a central component in energy-efficient and sustainable energy systems. Energy storage is a cross-cutting issue that relies on expert knowledge of many disciplines. The Energy Storage TCP fosters widespread experience, synergies and cross-disciplinary co-ordination of working plans and research goals.

The HPT TCP functions as an international framework of co-operation and knowledge exchange for the different stakeholders in the field of heat pumping technologies used for heating, cooling, air-conditioning and refrigeration in buildings, industries, thermal grids and other applications. The mission of the HPT TCP is to accelerate the transformation to an efficient, renewable, clean and secure energy sector in its member countries and beyond through collaboration research, demonstration and data collection and through enabling innovations and deployment in the area of heat pumping technologies.

Through multi-disciplinary international collaborative research and knowledge exchange, as well as market and policy recommendations, the SHC TCP works to increase the deployment rate of solar heating and cooling systems by breaking down the technical and non-technical barriers to increase deployment.