WEO Week: Sectoral transitions to new energy industries
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Cooling

Cooling energy use in buildings has doubled since 2000, making it the fastest growing end-use in buildings, led by a combination of warmer temperatures and increased activity.

Cooling Jpg

Key findings

Global air conditioner stock, 1990-2050

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The world faces a 'cold crunch'

Without efficiency gains, space cooling energy use could more than double between now and 2040 due to increased activity and use of air conditioning. In the Efficient World Scenario, energy efficiency for cooling offsets much of the climate, activity and structure impacts to limit cooling energy growth between now and 2040 to 19%.

Space cooling intensity index in the Sustainable Development Scenario, 1990-2030

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Most people purchase new air conditioners that are two to three times less efficient than the best available model

Energy demand for space cooling has more than tripled since 1990, making it the fastest-growing end use in buildings. Space cooling was responsible for emissions of about 1 GtCO2 and nearly 8.5% of total final electricity consumption in 2019. While highly efficient AC units are currently available, most consumers purchase ones that are two to three times less efficient. To put cooling on track with the SDS, energy efficiency standards need to be implemented to improve AC energy performance more than 50% by 2030. Together with improved building design, increased renewables integration and smart controls, this measure would cut space cooling energy use and emissions and limit the power capacity additions required to meet peak electricity demand.
Our work

The Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program (K-CEP) is a philanthropic collaboration launched in 2017 to support the Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol and the transition to efficient, clean cooling solutions for all.

This site serves as a progress tracker for the Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol.


The DHC TCP conducts research and development as well as policy analysis and international co-operation to increase the market penetration of district heating and cooling systems with low environmental impact.

The mission of the Energy Storage TCP is to facilitate research, development, implementation and integration of energy storage technologies to optimise the energy efficiency of all kinds of energy systems and enable the increasing use of renewable energy. Storage technologies are a central component in energy-efficient and sustainable energy systems. Energy storage is a cross-cutting issue that relies on expert knowledge of many disciplines. The Energy Storage TCP fosters widespread experience, synergies and cross-disciplinary co-ordination of working plans and research goals.

The HPT TCP functions as an international framework of co-operation and knowledge exchange for the different stakeholders in the field of heat pumping technologies used for heating, cooling, air-conditioning and refrigeration in buildings, industries, thermal grids and other applications. The mission of the HPT TCP is to accelerate the transformation to an efficient, renewable, clean and secure energy sector in its member countries and beyond through collaboration research, demonstration and data collection and through enabling innovations and deployment in the area of heat pumping technologies.

Through multi-disciplinary international collaborative research and knowledge exchange, as well as market and policy recommendations, the SHC TCP works to increase the deployment rate of solar heating and cooling systems by breaking down the technical and non-technical barriers to increase deployment.