Nuclear Power and Secure Energy Transitions: From Today's Challenges to Tomorrow's Clean Energy Systems

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Appliances & equipment

Growth in energy use by household appliances shows no signs of decelerating, yet only one-third of appliance energy use today is covered by mandatory performance standards.

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Key findings

Building appliances energy consumption in the Net Zero Scenario, 2010-2030


Further energy efficiency gains and user-centred behaviour shifts are needed for appliances

Global energy consumption by plug-in appliances continued to increase in 2020. To be in line with the IEA’s Net Zero Emissions by 2050 Scenario, final energy use for appliances and plug-loads should start to saturate and reach a plateau between 2025 and 2030. Despite improvements in efficiency resulting from stricter minimum energy performance standards in many regions, further gains are needed and must be accompanied with user-centred behaviour shifts to reduce household electricity needs. All appliances and equipment in 2035 would need to match today’s best technology. More effort is still needed by governments to reach this goal.

Annual energy reduction in new-product energy consumption from EES&L programmes


EES&Ls can lift the average rate of energy efficiency improvement by two to three times

Based on global evidence from countries with Energy efficiency standards and labelling (EES&L) programmes, the average energy efficiency of new major appliances in these countries can increase two to three times the underlying rate of technology improvement. This can result in average energy reductions of 10-30% over 15 to 20 years in the stock of most regulated products across all countries. In leading countries with strong regulations and long-running programmes which are regularly updated, the contribution could be much higher, with EES&L programmes helping reduce the electricity consumption of many appliances by over 50%.
Our work

The aims of the 4E TCP are to promote energy efficiency as the key to ensuring safe, reliable, affordable and sustainable energy systems. As an international platform for collaboration between governments, the 4E TCP provides policy guidance to its members and other governments concerning energy using equipment and systems. The 4E TCP prioritises technologies and applications with significant energy consumption and energy saving potential within the residential, commercial and industrial sectors (not including transport). To meet its aims, the 4E TCP harnesses the expertise of governments, industry, experts and other TCPs for joint research related to the development and deployment of energy efficient equipment.