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This report was prepared by the Energy Supply and Investment Outlook (ESIO) Division of the Directorate of Sustainability, Technology and Outlooks in co-operation with the Renewable Energy Division (RED) of the Directorate of Energy Markets and Security at the International Energy Agency (IEA). The principal authors were Michela Cappannelli, Christophe McGlade and Peter Zeniewski (ESIO), and Pharoah Le Feuvre (RED), with major contributions from Tim Gould (Head of ESIO Division), who designed and directed the analysis.

Other key contributors from across the International Energy Agency were, Praveen Bains, Arthur Contejean, Timothy Goodson, Apostolos Petropoulos and Molly A. Walton. Ryszard Pośpiech and Eleni Tsoukala provided essential support.

Valuable comments and feedback were provided by senior management and numerous other colleagues within the IEA, in particular, Laura Cozzi, Paolo Frankl, Keisuke Sadamori, Laszlo Varro and Mechthild Wörsdörfer.

The analysis relies heavily on the scenario analysis and modelling undertaken by the entire World Energy Outlook team.

Thanks also go to Astrid Dumond, Tanya Dyhin, Maria Kyriacou, Jad Mouawad, Jethro Mullen and Therese Walsh of the Communications and Digital Office. Erin Crum was the editor.

Valuable input was provided by Paul Hughes (independent consultant), and by the IEA Bioenergy TCP Task 37 (Jerry D. Murphy, School of Engineering University College Cork).

The United States Environmental Protection Agency provided invaluable support to this report.

Many experts from outside the IEA provided input, commented on the underlying analytical work, and reviewed a preliminary draft of the report. Their comments and suggestions were of great value. The work also benefited greatly from discussions at a high-level workshop held in Paris on 19 February 2019.

The individuals and organisations that contributed to this study are not responsible for any opinions or judgements it contains. All errors and omissions are solely the responsibility of the IEA.

  • Gabriel Kropsch (ABIOGAS – Brazilian Biogas and Biomethane Association)
  • Marco Pezzaglia (CIB – Italian Consortium Biogas)
  • Dou Kejun (CNREC – China National Renewable Energy Center)
  • Susana Lagarto (EIB – European Investment Bank)
  • Marta Kamola-Martines (Engie)
  • Ottavia Stella (Eni)
  • Séan Kinsella, Cihan Soenmez (ENTSOG - European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas)
  • Jerry Murphy (IEA TCP - Bioenergy - Task 37)
  • Martin Lambert (OIES – The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies)
  • Kim Gi-Eun (Seokyeong University, Seoul Korea)
  • Wim van Nes (SNV – Netherlands Development Organisation)
  • Pablo Kroff (SUEZ)
  • Masazumi Hirono (Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.)
  • Denise M Mulholland (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)


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