Energy system transformation

Energy and climate change

In 1994 Georgia acceded to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and on 21 February 2017, the government of Georgia approved the Paris Agreement. The country also revised its national climate goals and objectives in its updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) document,1 adopted in April 2021. Although Georgia faces national security threats from Russian occupation, economic and political crises, and the Covid-19 pandemic, it has set more ambitious targets2 than in its previous NDC. It remains fully committed to the Convention’s objectives and acknowledges the urgent necessity for climate change mitigation and adaptation. To support the country’s sustainable development, Georgia’s updated NDC aims to:

  • Unconditionally reduce national GHG emissions to 35% below the 1990 level by 2030.
  • Conditional on international support, reduce GHG emissions to 50% below the 1990 level by 2030 if the world commits to limit average global temperature increase to 2°C.

Reduce GHG emissions to 57% below the 1990 level by 2030 if the world commits to limit average global temperature increase to 1.5°C.

Nationally Determined Contribution targets

Georgia Nationally Determined Contribution targets, 2015 2030
Nationally Determined Contribution targets
Georgia Nationally Determined Contribution targets, 2015 2030

According to Georgia’s latest National Greenhouse Gas Inventory,3 in 2017 net emissions (including LULUCF) amounted to 12 842 kt CO2-eq and CO2 emissions from fuel combustion were 8.7 Mt CO2 (+60% from 2007). The transport sector accounted for 42% of these emissions, followed by the residential sector (20%) and industry (19%). Owing to the large share of hydro in electricity generation (80%), power generation accounts for only 12% of energy-related emissions, and the remaining 6% comes from the commercial sector. Although Georgia was responsible for just roughly 0.04% of the world’s GHG emissions in 2016,4 developing and implementing mitigation and adaptation measures would synergise Georgia’s adaptive capacity with that of other countries and also create economic, social and environmental benefits.

In 2016, the EU-Georgia Association Agreement entered into force, emphasising collaboration in climate change mitigation, adaptation to climate change, emissions trading, integration of climate change into industrial policy, and clean technology development. The Agreement underlines the inevitability of co‑operation in technology transfer based on Georgia’s Low Emission Development Strategy (LEDS), its Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and its Technology Needs Assessment (TNA).

Several documents outline the country’s national climate policy. Georgia’s recently published NDC defines climate goals and overall targets to 2030, and its Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan details sector-specific targets and relevant measures. Meanwhile, the Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy (LT LEDS) is intended as a visionary policy document with no concrete mitigation measures or action plan, and its scope extends to 2050. The National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) outlines integrated energy and climate measures at the national level, and Georgia regularly publishes National Communications (NCs) and Biennial Update Reports (BURs) on climate change issues to meet its UNFCCC obligations (its latest [fourth] NC was published in April 2021).5

Georgia's 2030 Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan accompanies the updated NDC to identify measures to meet unconditional and conditional commitments and mitigation targets in the transport, buildings, energy generation and transmission, agriculture, industry, waste management and forestry sectors. NDCs need to be updated every five years, and countries are expected to set more ambitious goals and targets each time.

Under the Paris Agreement, all countries agreed on an enhanced transparency framework for action and support, including clarity and tracking of progress in achieving the NDCs. Unfortunately, Georgia has not yet developed a national adaptation plan, but its updated NDC identifies several adaptation and vulnerability assessment objectives:

  • Assess the impact of climate change on the coastline, glaciers, forest lands, mountain ecosystems and ecosystem services.
  • Assess the impact of climate change on the availability of groundwater and surface water resources for sustainable use in different economic sectors.
  • Assess and strengthen the adaptive capacity of agricultural production to ensure food security.
  • Assess the effects of climate change on human health and take measures to mitigate damage caused by extreme weather events.
  • Strengthen the adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable winter and coastal resorts.

Furthermore, in 2017 Georgia began to develop national indicators and targets for Sustainable Development Goals, which are closely related to GHG emissions reductions.

Climate change policy planning happens not only nationally, but also at the municipal and city levels. Indeed, 26 Georgian cities and municipalities have joined the Covenant of Mayors initiative to reduce GHG emissions to 20% below the 1990 level by 2020 and to 40% below by 2030. Signatories are obligated to submit Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans (SECAPs) outlining the key actions they plan to undertake up to 2030.

Although Georgia has made some progress in developing climate change policy, challenges and barriers impede achievement of its UNFCCC and Paris Agreement commitments: qualified people to staff national and municipal public institutions responsible for climate change policies are in short supply; the state’s financial resources are insufficient to implement climate change mitigation and adaptation measures; there is a dearth of climate change-related research, academic institutions and educational courses and programmes; public demand for climate protection action is lacking because public awareness is limited; and the country needs an integrated database of projects contributing to climate change mitigation or adaptation. All these obstacles have caused the level and pace of Georgia’s development and implementation of climate-friendly and sustainable technologies to be low.

Energy and environmental protection

As all projects to develop renewable or fossil energy sources and establish transmission infrastructure strongly impact the environment, it is essential for Georgia to have sound procedures and proper protective mechanisms in place. In this respect, it has implemented several important reforms in recent years, and its current legislation is largely aligned with EU legislation and directives.

For instance, the country adopted an Environmental Assessment Code in 2017, with its main section implemented in 2018. Its updated legal framework for environmental impact assessments, including key requirements and procedures for environmental monitoring of the energy sector, is based on EU directives for environmental impact assessments and strategic environmental assessments:

  • Directive 2011/92/EU on the Assessment of the Effects of Certain Public and Private Projects on the Environment
  • Directive 2001/42/EC on the Assessment of the Effects of Certain Plans and Programmes on the Environment
  • Directive 2003/4/EC on Public Access to Environmental Information
  • Directive 2003/35/EC Providing for Public Participation in Respect of the Drawing Up of Certain Plans and Programmes Relating to the Environment
  • Directive 2004/35/CE on Environmental Liability Regarding the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

Georgia’s Environmental Assessment Code is also based on the principles of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (the Espoo Convention) and its Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment and the Aarhus Convention.

This new legal framework defines how to assess the impact individual energy projects will have on the natural and social environment, and it establishes appropriate procedures, the scope of public involvement, the decision-making process and other related issues. The law delineates institutional roles and the scope of authority required for appropriate decisions/findings.

Before adopting its Environmental Assessment Code, Georgia had already transposed several EU directives into its legislation:

  • Directive 1999/32/EC of 26 April 1999 Relating to a Reduction in the Sulphur Content of Certain Liquid Fuels and Amending Directive 93/12/EEC        
  • Directive 2010/75/EU of 24 November 2010 on Industrial Emissions
  • Directive 2001/80/EC of 23 October 2001 on the Limitation of Emissions of Certain Pollutants into the Air from Large Combustion Plants
  • Article 4(2) of Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the Conservation of Wild Birds.

Despite this new legal framework, environmental concerns relating to HPP developments and the construction of high-voltage transmission lines in the mountains of Georgia have yet to be addressed. This is partly due to challenges in the practical implementation of procedures, specifically:

  • The lax observance and slow implementation of administrative procedures.
  • A lack of methodological clarity and coverage, including cost-benefit analyses, ecological minimum river flow, etc.
  • Low public awareness and participation due to inadequate access to information.
  • Aberrant public perceptions and awareness resulting from exposure to biased and incorrect information.
  • Low availability and poor quality of geographic information systems (GISs) to acquire proper environmental information.
  • Poor indoor air quality caused by inefficient combustion of wet wood fuel.

Nevertheless, significant progress has been made in the policies and legal framework for air quality improvement: automatic air monitoring systems have been upgraded; a technical inspection system for vehicles has been introduced; and normative requirements for gasoline and diesel quality have been strengthened. Georgia also introduced an obligation for continuous instrumental monitoring by industrial enterprises, including TPPs, in line with Directive 2010/75/EU of 24 November 2010 of the European Parliament and the Council. Furthermore, it has expanded the country’s natural gas networks and reduced the use of firewood significantly. In fact, the share of firewood in Georgia’s total energy consumption had fallen to 4.8% or 1.3 million m3 in 2019, down from 2.1 million m3 in 2015. The state is also planning measures to replace low-efficiency stoves that are harmful to public health.

To improve environmental governance, Georgia is planning to:

  • Optimise the administrative process for environmental assessments.
  • Perfect and consolidate geo-informational systems and databases.
  • Improve air quality monitoring systems.
  • Promote the use of modern, efficient wood stoves.
Energy efficiency

The MoESD and its Division of Energy Efficiency and Alternative Energy Resources are the key policy-making entities supporting the development of energy-efficient technologies in Georgia. The MoESD develops, implements and co‑ordinates country-relevant sustainability actions; it also supports and co‑ordinates energy efficiency in the industry, construction, transport and service sectors, and creates measures that favour a green economy.

Georgia has implemented energy efficiency legislation to transpose the Energy Community acquis on energy efficiency. The Law on Energy Efficiency, prepared according to EU Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU, aims to:

  • Establish a common framework to promote and implement energy efficiency within the country.
  • Improve energy savings, increase energy supply security, enhance energy independence, and remove barriers to energy efficiency development.
  • Establish a process to develop a national energy efficiency target through an energy efficiency action plan, which would also outline measures to meet the target.
  • Provide a procedure to adopt the energy efficiency action plan.
  • Institute an energy efficiency obligation scheme and/or alternative policy measures to achieve energy savings.
  • Ensure co‑ordination among parties to control, monitor and supervise implementation of the country’s energy efficiency policy.

The Law on Energy Efficiency of Buildings was prepared according to EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU. Several secondary acts have already been drafted but not finalised to implement this law, which will:

  • Set buildings sector regulations to ensure the improved energy efficiency of existing and new buildings.
  • Introduce minimum energy performance standards and the obligation to adopt a methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings.
  • Include provisions to establish energy performance certification and the inspection of heating and cooling equipment.
  • Introduce sanctions for breaching the provisions of this law.

Georgia adopted a Law on Energy Labelling on 20 December 2019. It transposes Directive 2010/30/EU, and its purpose is to provide standard and additional information about the consumption of energy and other resources, as well as consumption indicators for energy-consuming products in Georgia, which will allow consumers to assess their use of energy and other resources.

The government also approved important secondary legislation: a National Methodology for Calculating the Energy Efficiency of Buildings, and Minimum Requirements for Energy Efficiency of Buildings, Parts of Buildings or Elements of Buildings.

To implement the primary legislation, a number of bylaws are being developed and adopted, including 19 legislative acts related to the Law on Energy Efficiency, 11 legislative acts on the Law on Energy Efficiency of Buildings and 10 legislative acts concerning the Law on Energy Labelling. Work is also under way on Georgia’s Law on Eco-design.

The MoESD has developed a National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) with 27 horizontal and sectoral measures in buildings, industry, transport, electricity and gas production and supply to be implemented by 2030. After rounds of public discussions and adjustments, the finalised NECP will be approved by the parliament and submitted to the Energy Community Secretariat.

The NECP’s wide-ranging measures include:

  • Building certification and minimum energy efficiency standards; annual energy efficiency renovations of 1% of administrative buildings; and an energy efficiency information system for public buildings.
  • Educational programmes and certification mechanisms to train specialists and support the energy service market.
  • Energy-efficient procurement in the public sector.
  • Awareness-raising programmes and preparation of energy managers.
  • A standards and labelling system for energy-consuming equipment.
  • Support for efficient lighting, including the replacement of incandescent lights.
  • Implementation of energy audits and energy management systems in industry.

A wide spectrum of energy efficiency measures in transport, including:

  • Public transport infrastructure improvement and a switch to sustainable transport systems
  • Fuel taxation to encourage lower consumption
  • Tax benefits for hybrid and electric vehicles
  • Inspection and standards for transport vehicles (EUR4/EUR5)
  • Urban planning measures, including Tbilisi’s Green Transport Policy
  • Incentives for railway and other public transport use.

In the energy sector:

  • New CCGT power plants to replace simple-cycle units
  • Transmission network improvements and transboundary co‑operation
  • Loss reduction in networks through incentive-based regulation.
  • The government encourages municipal activities within the framework of the Covenant of Mayors. Of the 26 cities and towns that have joined, most have already prepared energy action plans.

Concrete energy efficiency targets for 2030 will be fixed in the final draft of the NECP.

Renewable energy

The share of renewable energy in Georgia’s energy supply in 2020 was 19.5%, of which 15% was electricity produced by hydroelectric plants and 5% was biomass-based (i.e. firewood and agricultural waste used for heating). As Georgia lacks significant fossil fuel reserves, it relies primarily on renewable energy (mainly hydropower) for energy security. As of 2021, the share of renewable energy in electricity production was 81%, provided by hydropower and one wind farm.


Of Georgia’s 4 533 MW of installed power generation capacity, 2 381 MW are reservoir hydropower plants and 942 MW are run-of-river facilities. Small power plants (less than 15 MW of capacity) contribute 282 MW. In 2021, electricity production totalled 12 645 MWh, with reservoir plants generating 5 318.1 MWh and seasonal run-of-river plants contributing 4 022.1 MWh. Small power plants generated 841.9 MWh of clean energy.

In 2021, seven large HPPs used for seasonal regulation of electricity production generated 42% of the country’s total generation:6

  • Engurhesi (1 300 MW) – state-owned
  • Vardnilhesi 1 (220 MW) – state-owned
  • Khrami 1 (113 MW) – owned by Inter RA
  • Khrami 2 (110 MW) – owned by Inter RAO
  • Shaorhesi (38 MW) – owned by JSC Energo-Pro Georgia
  • Dzevrulhesi (80 MW) – owned by JSC Energo-Pro Georgia
  • Zhinvalhesi (130 MW) – owned by JSC Georgia Capital.

The technically and economically feasible potential of Georgia's hydropower resources is 2 286 projects, offering generation of 30 TWh/year at a construction cost of less than USD 0.35/kWh. Along with providing additional energy, hydropower development would allow Georgia to integrate greater volumes of solar and wind power and also regulate waterflow in periods of extreme runoff and for various needs, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, as hydropower development is complex, realising its full potential will require thorough study and proper planning.

Major challenges impeding hydropower development in Georgia include ineffective implementation of environmental impact assessments and public communication procedures (resulting in public opposition and bias against infrastructure projects); an absence of clear and transparent procedures for public-private partnerships with minimum administrative burden; and a lack of qualified strategic investors with adequate financial and technical resources.

Solar and wind

Reliable and comprehensive assessments of Georgia’s solar and wind potential still need to be conducted, involving an accurate evaluation of resources and geospatial analysis using a GIS. Wind potential has been roughly estimated at 1 500 MW of capacity, for 4 TWh of average annual electricity generation. Concerning solar energy, annual sunshine days range from 250 to 280 (1 900 to 2 200 hours) in most regions of the country, indicating considerable solar PV and solar thermal potential.

The medium-term assessment for wind and solar power potential is based mostly on network and balancing considerations.7 Georgia’s electricity transmission system operator (GSE) estimated that the country’s power system would be able to accommodate 333 MW of wind and 130 MW of solar capacity during 2020-2022. However, adding more reservoir HPPs to the system would permit the integration of 1 332 MW of wind and 520 MW of solar.

As of April 2022, Georgia had 397 solar PV installations (each below 500 kW) for a total capacity of 20.4 MW. In addition, the Ministry of Infrastructure initiated and is financing a GEL 2‑million project to install autonomous micro-PV plants in sparsely populated, hard-to-reach villages in mountainous regions.

At a larger scale, the government has signed 31 MoUs for solar power plants. Total installed capacity is 146 MW, with expected annual electricity generation amounting to 200 million kWh. It has also signed 13 MoUs for wind power plant projects, with total capacity of 740 MW and expected generation of 2.65 billion kWh. Construction of an 8‑MW project has begun.

Georgia’s only wind power plant (Qartli, 20.7 MW) was commissioned in 2016 and had a high (46%) capacity factor in 2021.


Georgia has over 250 natural and artificial geothermal sources in 44 geothermal fields, more than 80% of which are in western Georgia. Geothermal water, used mainly for simple household or agricultural (greenhouse) purposes, varies in temperature from 30ºC to 110ºC. The share of geothermal energy in the country’s energy balance is insignificant.

The Zugdidi-Tsaishi geothermal area has nine productive and seven reinjection wells, and three observation bore-hole wells considered to be exploitable. In addition, two deposits are known to contain geothermal water, from which up to 30 000 m3 could be obtained for reinjection twice a day. Poti, Georgia’s main port city, could be supplied with geothermal water from the Kvaloni and Menjisi water deposits.


Woody biomass has been one of Georgia’s main sources of heating for years, especially in rural regions. However, with greater access to gas and a reduction in available forest resources, firewood consumption has decreased significantly. Bioenergy supplies in 2019 amounted to 10 279 TJ (1.3 million m3) or 4.8% of total energy consumption, mainly consisting of woody biomass. A small amount of solid modern biofuel (pellets and briquettes) is produced from forestry and agricultural waste.

The sustainable regeneration limit of Georgia’s forests is estimated at 400 000-500 000 m3, meaning that fuelwood is consumed at the expense of forest degradation. Under the ongoing forestry reform, the forestry agency has begun to organise "business yards" to provide people with legal wood fuel supplies. This system is intended to replace the poorly controlled “social logging” that led to forest degradation.

To further reduce pressure on forests, it is necessary to develop alternative energy solutions to meet heating demand with sustainable bioenergy. For instance, inefficient wood stoves should be replaced with efficient ones, and advanced solid biofuels could be made from agricultural waste directly or used in the form of pellets and briquettes.8


As Georgia does not currently use waste for power and heat generation, waste management legislation is needed to encourage the collection and use of biological waste for energy purposes. Helpfully, a new, modern landfill adhering to EU requirements is planned in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara. While there are plans to install a landfill gas capture facility to use this gas for energy, project construction has yet to begin. 

Institutions, legislation and policies

As a structural unit of the MoESD’s Energy Reforms and International Relations Department, the Division of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policy Promotion implements state policies to support renewable energy resource development and the deployment of energy-efficient technologies.

In 2010, the government established the Georgian Energy Development Fund (GEDF) JSC to realise the country’s energy potential by mobilising funds to develop and implement projects. The Fund identifies prospective renewable energy projects and promotes their development through preliminary screenings, feasibility assessments and environmental impact assessments; it then finds investors and secures their interest in the projects.

Furthermore, the Law on the Promotion of Energy Production and Use from Renewable Sources was adopted in December 2019.9 To create an investor-friendly environment, the government offers attractive export markets, free third-party access to the grid and an efficient legal and regulatory framework for greenfield projects based on the build-own-operate principle. Liberal tax legislation, double taxation avoidance agreements with Organisation for Economic Co‑operation and Development (OECD) member countries, a rapidly expandable export market, simplified procedures, and a strong commitment to renewable energy source development also create a favourable business climate for potential investors.

To further encourage renewable energy development, government of Georgia Resolution No. 403 of 2 July 2020 approved a scheme to support the production and use of energy from renewable sources. It provides for payment of a market premium to renewable energy plants (hydro, wind and solar) with an installed capacity of more than 5 MW.

Renewable energy project development in Georgia is based on the Law on Public-Private Partnerships10 and Resolution No. 515 of the Government of Georgia (October 2018). As of April 2022, 43 renewable energy projects were being developed based on the Law on Public-Private Partnerships, with 4 wind power projects at the final phase of implementation.

In 2015, GNERC passed a regulation introducing net metering for small-scale power plants (i.e. installed capacity of less than 500 kW) owned by retail consumers. Customers participating in this scheme are eligible to transfer excess energy to the grid. Electricity generated in surplus of self-consumption needs can be injected into the grid and then resupplied upon request later for self-consumption; otherwise, excess electricity can be sold to distribution companies at the weighted average purchase price.

As part of Georgia’s electricity market reform, a day-ahead market and a market for system services are planned. While the planned launch for September 2022 was postponed, the market design is being finalised.

Meanwhile, the MoESD is finalising the National Energy Policy and the NECP, in which renewable energy sources are central for decarbonisation and energy security. The draft document fixes the binding target for renewable energy in 2030 at 27.4% of total final consumption.

According to the draft, in 2022-2030 the state plans to:

  • Integrate renewable energy into buildings and offer local municipality support to install renewable energy systems in new buildings.
  • Introduce renewable energy requirements for new and capital-renovated buildings in 2025, and for public buildings in 2022.
  • Deploy technologies for sustainable use of biomass, ensuring at least 85% efficiency in residential and commercial buildings and at least 70% efficiency in enterprises. MoESD co‑operation under the forestry reform will promote the use of only sustainably harvested firewood.
  • Promote the use of modern solid biofuels (briquettes and pellets) made from forestry and agricultural residues.
  • Implement EU-standard environmental labelling and energy labelling, and other technical standard systems for solar water heaters to promote the use of certified quipment and systems.
  • Create a training and certification system within the national qualification framework for installers of small biomass boilers, solar PV systems, heat pumps and other renewable energy technologies.
  • Initiate informational, awareness-raising and training programmes involving local and regional government bodies to inform residents about the advantages and practicalities of developing and using renewable energy.
  • Co‑operate internationally to develop joint projects and statistical transfer schemes. Introduce a single-window principle for local and foreign investors, and co‑ordinate co‑operation of the various state structures.
Technology research, development, demonstration and deployment

Georgian RDD&D in general is linked to its Socio-Economic Development Strategy to 2020, but as the country’s science system has over 80 non-prioritised research directions, there are no special energy-related RDD&D provisions in the Development Strategy or in any strategic document related to science and innovation. However, recent reforms have increased support for RDD&D in general, the key institutions providing funding being the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (SRNSF), which supports projects at the initial stages of development, and Georgia’s Innovation and Technology Agency (GITA), which finances globally scalable start-up projects.

Several laws regulate management of Georgia’s science, technology and innovation system:

  • The Law on Science, Technologies and Their Development (1994)
  • The Law on Grants (1996)
  • The Law on Higher Education (2004)
  • The Law on Education Quality Improvement (2010)
  • The Law on Innovations (2016).

No specific institution has been designed to support energy RDD&D, so energy-related research and innovation projects are implemented within the general RDD&D framework.

Although government spending on all RDD&D has increased significantly in recent years, its share in national GDP remains low compared with EU countries (see Figure). Georgia’s RDD&D intensity – the ratio of government RDD&D spending to GDP – was 0.23% in 2019, while the average rate for EU countries is 2.3% (2020 data). Furthermore, both the country’s financing of RDD&D and its RDD&D intensity have fallen since 2016.

Government of Georgia spending on RD&D, 2015-2019


During 2017-2020, Georgia spent GEL 3.3 million on energy-related research, development and innovation through GITA and the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation.

Public funding for RDD&D in Georgia comes from several sources, and priority-setting and decision making on funding is decentralised. Project-based funding comes from the SRNSF, GITA and Enterprise Georgia, and funding for research institutes comes mainly from the Ministry of Science, Education, Culture and Sport (MES).

The MES allocates funding to the universities, which then decide how to redistribute the money to research units/institutes. The SRNSF also provides resources for maintaining and upgrading research facilities and infrastructure. In practice, there is no baseline funding for research in Georgia since MES allocations are mostly used to cover researchers’ salaries (even though salaries in research and science are well below the country’s average wage, especially for beginner researchers). It is difficult to evaluate private sector spending on energy RDD&D because reliable data and statistics are lacking. Experts estimate that funding from local industry is quite small, and while there is some international funding, it is attracted in an ad-hoc manner. The data are thus too scattered to present a complete picture of total funding for energy RDD&D. According to Geostat, in 2018 the private sector spent GEL 600 000 on RDD&D, and in 2019 it spent GEL 1 181 000.

In April 2016, Georgia’s MES signed an association agreement with the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, Horizon 2020 (now Horizon Europe). Becoming an Associated Country means Georgian research organisations can participate in Horizon Europe’s calls for projects with the same rights as organisations from EU member states. However, due to the high level of competition and Georgia’s lack of experience, shortage of qualified research institutions and other country-specific barriers, the participation rate of Georgian organisations is quite low. In the previous framework programme (Horizon 2020), Georgia’s participation was ranked 12th out of 16 Associated Countries. Of the total EUR 8.7 million Georgian organisations received from participating in 85 Horizon 2020-financed projects, EUR 1 million was dedicated to energy- and climate-related projects. In addition, as a Near Neighbour Country (NNC), Georgia is also eligible to participate in the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) programme.

Also in the interests of RDD&D, the SRNSF co‑operates with Elsevier, which provides access to the electronic journals and data of 21 independent public research institutes and research universities, and the SRNSF pays Georgia’s annual membership fees for the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Dubna Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. Georgia is also eligible for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Science for Peace and Security programme.


  2. In Georgia’s previous NDC, the unconditional national GHG emissions reduction target for 2030 was about 24% below the 1990 level (

  3. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

  4. In 2016, Georgia’s national GHG emissions were 18 534 kt CO2-eq (excluding LULUCF, FNC), while global GHG emissions were 49.4 billion tonnes of CO2-eq (


  6. GNERC (2022), Energy data.

  7. NVE (2021), Hydro Power Potential in Georgia

  8. IEA (2020), Sustainable Bioenergy for Georgia: A Roadmap.

  9. (available in Georgian only).