Energy Policy Review
IEA (2022), Uzbekistan 2022, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/uzbekistan-2022, License: CC BY 4.0
About this report
Uzbekistan’s broad economic reforms were expanded to cover energy in 2019 when the government launched a multiphase transition from the state-owned and -operated and subsidised energy sector model to competitive gas, oil and electricity markets with significant private-sector participation and cost-covering energy prices.
The reform plans to diversify the country’s energy supply, which domestic natural gas continues to dominate in all sectors, including transport. Natural gas exports will be phased out by 2025 and the gas will be used increasingly to expand petrochemicals production, while Uzbekistan’s significant but unexploited solar and wind resources will be harnessed to help build a cleaner power sector to 2030. While energy use per capita is low, the country’s economy remains one of the most energy-intensive in the world, and massive potential remains to improve energy efficiency through incentives and mandates.
This report is intended to help guide Uzbekistan towards a more secure, sustainable and efficient energy future. It proposes several ways to support the government in its reform efforts. The gradual transition to competitive markets and withdrawal of subsidies should be accompanied by support measures for those most in need. For the reform to succeed, an independent and well-resourced energy regulator is also necessary. Furthermore, the financial imbalances in the state-owned energy companies must be addressed and their re emergence avoided.
For the long term, as Uzbekistan’s population, cities and economy are projected to grow strongly, a cross-sectoral approach is required to limit the increase in energy demand and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions.