IEA (2011), Technology Roadmap - Energy-Efficient Buildings - Heating and Cooling Equipment, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/technology-roadmap-energy-efficient-buildings-heating-and-cooling-equipment
Buildings account for almost one-third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling, as well as hot water, are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and save 710 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of energy by 2050. Most of these technologies – which include solar thermal, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps and thermal energy storage – are commercially available today. The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap’s vision.