Outlook for key energy transition minerals

This report is part of Global Critical Minerals Outlook 2024

About this report

This report provides an outlook for demand and supply for key energy transition minerals including copper, lithium, nickel, cobalt, graphite and rare earth elements. Demand projections encompass both clean energy applications and other uses, focusing on the three IEA Scenarios – the Stated Policies Scenario (STEPS), the Announced Pledges Scenario (APS) and the Net Zero Emissions by 2050 (NZE) Scenario. Supply projections are based on a detailed review of all announced projects. They show how today's geographical concentration evolves over time, for both mining and refining and how expected supply compares with primary supply requirements in climate-driven scenarios. The outlook is complemented by structured “clean energy transitions risk assessments” across four major dimensions – supply risks, geopolitical risks, ability to respond to supply disruptions, and exposure to ESG and climate risks, which were designed to help policymakers identify potential areas of weakness for each material.