Global Energy and Climate Model

Scenario analysis of future energy trends
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About this report

Since 1993, the IEA has provided medium- to long-term energy projections using a continually-evolving set of detailed, world-leading modelling tools. First, the World Energy Model (WEM) – a large-scale simulation model designed to replicate how energy markets function – was developed. A decade later, the Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) model – a technology-rich bottom-up model – was developed, for use in parallel to the WEM. In 2021, the IEA adopted for the first time a new hybrid modelling approach relying on the strengths of both models to develop the world’s first comprehensive study of how to transition to an energy system at net zero CO2 emissions by 2050

Since then, the IEA has worked to develop a new integrated modelling framework: IEA’s Global Energy and Climate (GEC) Model. As of 2022, this model is the principle tool used to generate detailed sector-by-sector and region-by-region long-term scenarios across IEA's publications.

Download the GEC Model Methodology document for an in-depth description of the overall approach and features of the model, and download the GEC Model Key Input dataset for selected key input data.