About this report
This 2023 update to our Net Zero Roadmap surveys the complex and dynamic energy landscape and sets out an updated pathway to net zero by 2050, taking account of the key developments that have occurred since 2021.
11% of cumulative emissions reductions
Energy efficiency and behavioural change
Average annual rate of total energy intensity reduction by contributor
|Annual energy intensity improvement||2.0%||4.9%||3.6%||1.8%|
|Unit electricity consumption of new air conditioners (index 2022 = 100)||100||70||59||52|
|Unit electricity consumption of refrigerators (index 2022 = 100)||100||60||53||41|
|Fuel consumption of new internal combustion engine trucks (index 2022 = 100)||100||84||79|
|Energy intensity of clinker production (GJ/t)||3.6||3.4||3.3||2.9|
|Key behavioural changes in buildings and transport|
|• Eco-driving and motorway speed limits of 100 km/h introduced by 2030|
|• Use of internal combustion engine cars phased out in large cities by 2030|
|• Space heating temperatures moderated to 19-20 °C and space cooling temperatures to 24-25 °C on average by 2030|
|• One-out-of-two long-haul business flights are avoided by 2040|
Efficiency standards cover 90% of energy use for key appliances but other uses lag
Reductions of energy demand from behavioural changes are nearly five times higher per capita in 2030 in advanced economies
Avoided demand includes behavioural change. The 2030 value shown in the top graph of the dashboard refers to the average annual rate of energy intensity improvement between 2022 and 2030 in the NZE Scenario.
No new internal combustion engine trucks are sold after 2040 in advanced economies and after 2045 in the emerging market and developing economies.