CO2 storage resources and their development

An IEA CCUS Handbook

Cover Co2 Storage Resources And Their Development Photo Of Rock Made Up Of Layers

About this report

Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) technologies are an important solution for the decarbonisation of the global energy system as it proceeds down the path to net zero emissions. CCUS can contribute to the decarbonisation of the industrial and power generation sectors, and can also unlock technology-based carbon dioxide (CO2) removal. However, its successful deployment hinges on the availability of CO2 storage. For widespread CCUS deployment to occur, CO2 storage infrastructure needs to develop at the same speed or faster than CO2 capture facilities.

CO2 has been injected into the Earth’s subsurface since the 1970s and dedicated CO2 storage (where CO2 is injected for the purpose of its storage and not for CO2-based enhanced oil recovery) has been occurring since 1996. There are seven commercial-scale dedicated CO2 storage sites today, with more than 100 others in development. Lessons learned from these sites, along with research, pilot and demonstration projects, contribute to our understanding of CO2 storage resources, their assessment and their development into CO2 storage sites.

This IEA CCUS Handbook is an aid for energy sector stakeholders on CO2 storage resources and their development. It provides an overview of geological storage, its benefits, risks and socio‑economic considerations. The handbook is supported by an extensive glossary of CO2 storage-related terminology found at the end of this report and complements the IEA CCUS Handbook on Legal and Regulatory Frameworks.