This determination is made under the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007. It provides for the measurement of scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions arising from the operation of facilities as well as the production and consumption of energy arising from the operation of facilities. Therefore, it sets applicable methodologies and principles.
Part 1.3, concerning Method 4, covers the direct measurement of emissions, including methane emissions. It outlines pertaining formulas, sampling methods and standards for the different types of equipment associated with continuous or periodic emissions monitoring. These include thresholds for energy use or processing capacity that are tied to accuracy requirements.
Chapter 2 covers emissions from fuel combustion, including solid, gaseous and liquid fuels. It defines methods to estimate methane emissions, including those associated with the combustion of gaseous fuels, and references applicable emission factors. This chapter also defines reporting procedures for certain industries, with Division 2.5.1 concerning petroleum refining.
Chapter 3 covers fugitive emissions from coal mining (Part 3.2), oil and natural gas (Part 3.3) and; carbon capture and storage (Part 3.4). Oil and gas activities include oil and gas production, transport, refining and distribution. There are specific provisions for each type of source with direct measurement (Method 4) being required for vented emissions from well completions and well workovers; and deliberate releases from process vents, system upsets and accidents.
Chapter 8 sets out rules about how uncertainty is to be assessed in working out estimates of scope 1 emissions for a source. These include specific provisions for assessing uncertainty in methane emissions from fuel combustion and for fugitive sources.
Schedule 1 outlines energy content factors and emission factors for different types of fuels, including values for methane emissions. It also sets factors related to scope 2 emissions (from consumption of electricity purchased or lost from grid).