The European Commission adopted in September 2001 a new Transport Policy White Paper [COM(2001)370], proposing an action plan aimed at substantial improvements in the quality and efficiency of transport in Europe. The White Paper aims at a shift of the balance between modes of transport to an environment-friendly mix and the removal of bottlenecks by revitalising the railways, promoting maritime and inland-waterway transport and linking up the different modes of transport. Modal shares should be restored to 1998 levels by 2010. The White Paper proposes a total of about 60 measures, some of which would lead to substantial reductions in energy consumption and CO2 emissions, chief among them being the following: - The completion of market opening in freight railways. - The development of fair infrastructure-charging for all modes by proposing a Framework Directive taking into account external costs, addressing climate change in a manner co-ordinated with energy taxation. - The harmonised taxation of transport commercial fuel. - The support of investments in ten railway infrastructures. - The "Marco Polo" programme to promote intermodality. These measures are part of the strategy proposed by the White Paper gradually to break the link between transport growth and economic growth in order to reduce the pressure on the environment and prevent congestion.