As a result of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, approximately USD 9 billion is being applied towards the modernisation of the electricity grid in 131 smart grid investment grant (SGIG) projects around the country through public-private partnerships. The projects are deploying smart grid technologies (e.g. automated controls on field devices, meters, sensors, communications infrastructure, and consumer monitoring technology) within the transmission and distribution systems and on customers' premises. Significant energy efficiency improvements are expected primarily by: a) demand reduction by customers, b) reduced truck rolls through more efficient field operations, and c) optimised control of voltage and reactive power. In addition, significant resources are focused on co-ordinating transmission system planning and advancing energy storage technologies, as well as computational methods of grid modeling, to more effectively integrate renewable energy technologies into the electric grid and to reduce the environmental footprint of energy generation and delivery.