Executive Order No. 79, s. 2012
This Executive Order aims to reform the mining sector and promote environmentally-sound mining practices. It lists areas closed to mining applications, specifically: areas listed under Sec. 19 of the Philippine Mining Act, protected areas, agricultural lands, tourism development areas, and other critical areas.
It directs strict compliance with environmental standards and imposes a moratorium on new mineral agreements until a new law on revenue sharing is passed. However, no new revenue sharing scheme has been passed since the order was issued. The moratorium was eventually lifted by the succeeding administration through Executive Order 130.
It created Mineral Reservations for the development of strategic industries identified in country development plans and imposed the use of competitive public bidding for: (1) the grant of mining rights and mining tenements over areas with known and verified mineral resources and reserves; and (2) the development and utilisation of abandoned ores and valuable metals in mine wastes and mill tailings.
To ensure implementation, the order created the Mining Industry Coordinating Council (MICC). The MICC proposed no-go zone maps consisting of areas off limits to mining activities. These areas are reserved for agriculture, eco-tourism, protected landscapes and seascapes.
DENR Administrative Order 2012-07 (Implementing Rules and Regulations of Executive Order 79) added more detail to how the order would be operationalised, which includes the timeline and frequency of review of mining performance. It directed certain agencies to create a centralised database of mining-related information and an integrated map system to include mining-related maps.
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