EKO Energy was a voluntary agreement programme within Swedish National Energy Administration (now Swedish Energy Agency) (STEM) directed at larger energy-intensive industrial companies that were environmentally proactive, seeking EMAS or ISO 14001 certification. It started in 1994 and consisted of the following elements: - STEM provided a comprehensive inventory and analysis of energy use in the company production and premises, including a list of suggested measures to be taken. The suggested measures mainly concerned the building (ventilation, heating, lighting) and surrounding equipment (compressed air). - The company set energy and environmental targets and established an action plan based on reasonably economically viable measures that the inventory and analysis suggest. The action plan had to be revised every year and submitted to STEM. - STEM provided a comprehensive material flow analysis as well as introductory comparison of the company environmental awareness and environmental management compared to guidelines based on EMAS or ISO 14001 standards. - The company established long-term energy and environmental policy in accordance with EMAS or ISO 14001. - STEM provided an educational package on the process of energy-efficient industrial purchasing, ENEU 94. - The company established ENEU 94 as a company standard method to purchase energy-efficient machines and tools. Energy-efficient purchasing is a long-term activity that initiates energy issues into everyday life within the company. ENEU 94 introduced investment calculations using life-cycle analysis and not pay-off analysis. This was a very important part of EKO Energy and also the most difficult part for the company to fulfil. - STEM arranged goodwill activities such as spreading success stories to the press and/or appointing the most successful EKO energy company of the year in a ceremony covered by the media. If no actions were taken, no sanctions were made against the company other than lost goodwill. More than 30 Swedish companies were involved in EKO energy activities. No company found that it could afford not to follow the expert advice on energy efficiency measures. Energy efficiency was mainly achieved in areas such as ventilation (27%), motors and drives (22%), lighting (2%), compressed air (7%), heating (8%) and process measurement areas (32%). The programme was closed to new participants as of 1999, and funding for the programme ended in 2000.