Iraq's Constitution of 2005

Last updated: 23 December 2020

According to Iraq's Constitution, oil and gas are owned by all the people of Iraq in all the regions and governorates. Thus, the federal government, along with the regional governments, shall undertake the management of oil and gas resources and formulate policies to develop oil and gas activities in a way that achieves the highest benefit to the Iraqi people and uses the most advanced techniques and market principles.


This constitution also establishes that the state is responsible for the protection and preservation of the environment and its biological diversity. Hence, it shall formulate environmental policies, in cooperation with regional governments, to ensure the protection of the environment from pollution and to preserve its quality.

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