Japan sets and periodically updates fuel economy standards on cars, vans and trucks under its Top Runner Program. The efficiency requirements are based on the most fuel-efficient vehicles on the market, and manufacturers and importers of these vehicles are required to meet these vehicle efficiency standards on a corporate average basis. The fuel efficiency of passenger vehicles has improved by 96% over the past two decades. Japan has announced new fuel economy standards on light duty vehicles, aiming at improving fuel efficiency by 32% by 2030, compared with 2016 levels. The scope has been expanded to cover the efficiency of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, and new standards take into account the energy consumption of the fuel production (gasoline and electricity), the so-called 'well-to-wheel' approach.