Poland’s Clean Air Programme is a nation-wide public grant scheme to support sing-family buildings renovations. This entails the replacement of old heating devices and/or deep thermo-modernisation, with over PLN 100 billion (EUR 22 billion) earmarked for the programme. The programme is operated by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management and its regional bodies, with about 2 000 local communities. Grants differentiate between three beneficiary groups – up to PLN 30 000 for the basic version, up to PLN 37 000 for people in more difficult financial situations, and an additional PLN 5 000 grant for photovoltaics. Recent changes have streamlined and sped up the application process and disbursement mechanisms. In parallel, at the commune-level, the Stop Smog programme finances thermal modernisation of single-family homes, focusing in particular on energy poor households. The programme is targeted at municipalities covered by the “anti-smog resolution”, and supports the replacement of high-emissions heating systems with low-emission substitutes, thermo-modernisation of single-family residential buildings, and connection to the heating or gas networks. As such, the aid will support households whose owners cannot afford to replace heat sources in reducing emissions and increasing energy affordability. The implementation of the Stop Smog programme is planned for 2019-2024, with a budget of PLN 1 billion, of which PLN 180 million has been allocated so far. The first call for applications resulted in agreements with seven municipalities, and contributed to refurbishments of approximately 1 100 buildings.