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IEA member country public budgets for energy research, development and demonstration (RD&D) increased by 2% in 2021 to an estimated USD 23 billion1. This was the fifth consecutive yearly increase after five years of decline; although the growth rate is lower than the previous four years (6% in average).

Total public energy RD&D budget for 

The United States and Japan spent the most on energy RD&D among IEA member countries, followed by France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, Korea, Italy and Norway. The figures below also include the European Union’s energy RD&D budget under its Horizon 2020 programme and the Innovation Fund, which is larger than that of all but two IEA member countries: the United States and Japan.

Total public energy RD&D budgets by country for 2021 or latest available year


Public energy RD&D budgets by country for IEA members and the European union, 2021


Public energy RD&D budget per unit of GDP varied greatly among IEA member countries, ranging from 0.02 to 1.26 per thousand unit of GDP in 2021. Norway had the highest level (1.26), followed by France (0.70). Other leading countries were Finland (0.62), Japan (0.56) and Belgium (0.55).

Total public energy RD&D budgets per thousand units of GDP by country for 2021

Notes and references
  1. All data in this publication are expressed in 2021 prices. The total IEA budget does not include the European Union funding (USD 2.5 billion in 2020).